The rapid recovery of wolves in the Great Lakes region has proven to be both a great success story and a growing concern. Not only have wolves far exceeded estimates of their biological carrying capacity for the region, they have also been able to establish themselves in areas where it was once thought nearly impossible. Gray wolves in the western Great Lakes region have now met federal recovery goals and are being considered for delisting from the federal list of endangered species. A particular case that illustrates well the success and future concern of wolf recovery is Michigan. Where no wolves existed as recently as twenty years ago, nearly 500 now roam throughout all of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. And, more recently, it has been confirmed that breading packs are now established in northern counties of the state's Lower Peninsula. The discovery of wolves in much more heavily populated areas of Michigan has greatly increased public awareness and concern over future wolf recovery. While the gray wolf has proven to be highly adaptable to the northern Michigan landscape, its future growth and sustainability will depend less on the state's biological carrying capacity and more upon the general public's "social carrying capacity" (or tolerance) of this once hated and feared creature. The proposed research will first review the social scientific literature for the changing social construction (attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions) of wolves that set the stage for their recovery in Michigan. The principle component of the proposed project will then be to survey a representative sample of Michigan residents to ascertain their perceptions of and tolerance for wolves. It is intended that findings from this study will contribute to the public discourse of wolf recovery and help shape public policy and management of wolves.