I seek a GLCA New Directions Initiative grant to advance the research and writing of my second book in the summer of 2011. Based on a systematic investigation of the dissemination and reception of Graceo-Roman classics in late imperial and modern China, this project explores the roles Graeco-Roman antiquity played in the Chinese discourses on the value of classical traditions, both Chinese and non-Chinese, and strategies of constructing and appropriating the West in the context of China's tormenting journey towards the formation of its modern culture. Intersecting both antiquity and West, the Graeco-Roman classics in China provide a unique lens through which confrontations and negotiations between tradition and modernity, West and East, China's self-identity and defining the "Other", its superiority and inferiority complexes, nationalism and cosmopolitanism, as well as national salvation and personal enlightenment can be examined to enrich our understanding of both the agony and creativity in the formation of modern Chinese culture. With its focus on cross-cultural appropriation, the proposed project represents a departure from my past scholarship as a Classicist, which focused on using Latin inscriptions to provide insights into the roles of the non-elite organizations, especially the textile guilds, in the socioeconomic life in the Roman Empire. As such, the project redirects my scholarly career into an area that allows for greater interdisciplinary inquiry.