I will use the GLCA New Directions Initiative grant to support three weeks of research at the Haus-, Hof- und Staatarchiv in Vienna and the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, followed by five weeks in the United States, devoted to a literature review and writing time. The focus of my research is the legal history of the Holy Roman Empire, dealing with the legal consequences of conversion to Protestantism by two sixteenth-century Archbishops of Cologne, Hermann von Wied and Gebhard, Truchsess von Waldburg. I will also conduct a literature review of scholarship dealing with the legal history of the Holy Roman Empire in the sixteenth century. In the archives, I will review imperial cases brought against the archbishops as a result of their conversion to Protestantism. My working hypothesis is that in the mid-sixteenth century, when Hermann von Wied lived, conversion from Catholicism to Protestantism was a process with few clear markers, and Hermann’s confessional status was contested between the Protestant and Catholic communities. By Gebhard’s time, in the late sixteenth century, the borders between Protestantism and Catholicism were clearer, partly because of legal changes between the 1540s and the 1580s. I am seeking a new direction because the collapse of the Cologne city archive has rendered my former sources unavailable. My new directions are the use of new archives, a focus on legal history, a change from the history of communities to the history of individuals, and a change in focus from local history to imperial history.