Test-Enhanced Learning (TEL) occurs when individuals who are tested over previously studied material will subsequently show better performance on a later test of that material compared to individuals who only engaged in continued studying of the material. Research in TEL has blossomed since 2006 because it is an interesting theoretical issue to determine how and why testing improves subsequent retrieval performance, and because it has direct application to classroom teaching and learning. In this proposal, I request NDI support to develop three possible research strategies to investigate TEL that could be initiated in the upcoming year. First, I propose development of experiments that would examine whether TEL can be obtained with visual-spatial stimuli as most existing research has been conducted with the use of word lists or prose as the target material. Second, I propose development of experiments that would examine if the addition of a new manipulation (instructions that the participant will later have to teach the material) can further enhance TEL. Third, I plan to collaborate with one of my consultants at an R1 institution to determine if differences exist between students at liberal arts schools versus R1 institutions in regard to their performance and motivation in either of the aforementioned TEL experiments. TEL work is substantially different from my current work exploring classical conditioning in rats, providing evidence of a new direction in research. Furthermore, the results from this work should also stimulate innovation in pedagogy.